Dissolved oxygen or DO refers to the level of free, non-compound oxygen present in water or other liquids. The DO value is important parameter for your water quality and the process where you use the water for. An ultrafine bubble is not DO a bubble is an gas cavity in water or another liquid.
The dissolved oxygen level is influenced by the following factors:
- Temperature of the water
- The salinity of the water
- The alitude of operation (atmospheric pressure)
- Biology in the water by respiration of fish and plants
The relationship between water temperature and DO is inverse: Cold water is able to hold more DO than warm water. The ultrafine bubble generators on this website pressurize gas and liquids and for that reason they are able to oversaturate the water. In nature under normal conditions a saturation level of 100% is the maximum.
AIr contains 20.95% oxygen. At standard barometric pressure (760 mmHg), the pressure or 'tension" of oxygen in air is 159 mmHG (760 x 0.2095). The pressure of oxygen in air drives oxygen into water until the pressure of oxygen in water is equal to the pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere. When pressure of oxygen in water and atmosphere are equal, net movement of oxygen molecules from atmosphere to water stops. The water is than in equilibrium or at saturation, with dissolved oxygen (DO) when the oxygen presssure in water equals the pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere.
PPM versus mg / L
We often get the question what is the diffence between DO ppm versus DO mg/L. At first it looks two very different forms of measurement. They are both ratios, and to see how they align with each other, it’s easiest to start with ppm, or parts per million. As an example, let’s say you’re trying to determine the salinity of seawater, and you get a reading of 36,000 ppm; that simply means that for every million parts of water, there are 36,000 parts of salt.
What are parts? Parts can be any measure. Liters, buckets, or a drop of water (orange juice, gasoline, etc). The size of the sample is irrelevant. It’s the RATIO of the tested parts (salt) to the total number of parts (seawater) that’s important. It’s pretty easy to grasp ppm, but how about mg/L?
A liter of water (which is a metric measure of volume, or capacity) weighs 1 kilogram. That’s 1,000 grams. Now think about a milligram. It is 1/1000th of a gram, making it 1/1,000,000 th of a kilogram. Put another way, a liter of water weighs 1,000,000 milligrams. One million milligrams… see where this is going? For our purposes, 36,000 milligrams/Liter is the same measurement as 36,000 parts per million.* Both measurements tell us how many parts (milligrams) are present in every million parts (Liter).
In reality, for these measurements to be perfectly equal, they must be taken with pure water at standard temperature and pressure. Most testing instruments include an automatic temperature compensation feature (ATC) which corrects for this difference.
DO values table
Dissolved oxygen values saturation point and over saturated values
|Temperature||DO (mg/L)||DO (mg/L)||DO (mg/L)||DO (mg/L)||DO (mg/L)|
Dissolved Oxygen Control System: DO controller for applications that require a high accuracy of dissolved oxygen levels such as aquaculture and water treatment aeration. In combination with the DO controller achieve an optimal environment with energy savings by running the equipment for the minimum time required by the settings.
Large volume submersible ultrafine bubble generator in combination with a dissolved oxygen generator, for aerating effectively lakes, horticulture, fishponds and shrimp cultivation. Aeration is for many biological processes very important the Acniti submersible unit guarantees high DO values for ideal biological activities creating an optimal environment for high production output.
Aqua Gen is the first NSF approved ultra-fine bubble, nano bubble swimming pool technology. Aqua Gen is an advanced oxygen water treatment system designed for cleaning swimming pools, spas and water features. The Aqua Gen has commercially been installed in more than 100 pools and has proven to bring many benefits to both pool owners and pool users.
Low cost Ultrafine Bubble Monitoring ALT-9F17 system, to measure reliably the concentration of ultrafine bubbles (nano bubbles) in your water.
The miniGaLF is ACNITI`s entry level GaLF model designed for companies, universities, research institutes and individuals that want to learn about Ultrafine bubble technology. In this blog a movie is shown of the connections and the performance to create ultrafine bubble (nano bubbles) with high DO water.
Bubbles are gas filled cavities in water. The contact area between bubbles in water filled with tiny bubbles is much larger than water filled with bigger bubbles. The gas pressure inside a small bubble is higher than in a large bubble, therefore the surface tension of a small bubble is higher as well.
A contaminated pond which was used for irrigation was treated for 40 days with nano bubbles. After treatment the algae contamination problems was solved. For the treatment the UFB mixer nano bubble generator was used, in combination with an connected oxygen concentrator.
Algae blooms are often a reason to start pond remediation. Probiotics in combination with ultra-fine bubbles can increase the efficiency of the waste water treatment process. Acniti supplies probiotics in tablet form an easy and safe way to dose and apply the beneficial bacteria.
Research into ozone ultrafine bubble technology for the treatment of captured produce wash water. The white paper shows that their are benefits in using the technology, by better disinfection and savings in ozone can be obtained.
Root systems require oxygen for aerobic respiration. Reduced levels of oxygen in the rootzone, slow down plant growth and increase susceptibility of diseases. Indoor grown plants in closed water systems have often a lack of oxygen and need additional oxygen supply. By delivering ultrafine bubble to the rootzone of the plant, you increase the levels of oxygen and the water get negatively electrically charged this promotes nutrient uptake and hair root growth. Read the whole article to see what experience cannabis growers have to say about the ultrafine bubble system.
Selecting a nano bubble generator can be a daunting task when you are new to the technology. In the following article we explain the differences of the various units. This helps you to select the best ultrafin bubble generator for your research, application development or ultrafine bubble production.
Bubbles are all around us, in our foods, beer, pop drinks bread and cheese, but also in the bricks of our house. Bubbles are gas-filled cavities in water, the lifetime of a bubble is short at most a few minutes, only ultra-fine bubbles are stable for longer periods like months, that is making them very special and that enables us to change the properties of water.
Nano Bubbles are useful in accelerating the metabolism of living organisms, but the mechanism is not yet well understood. In a study, they investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Nano Bubbles and the effect on seed germination. The conclusion of the study was seeds in nano bubble water had a higher germination rate than all those submerged in the different other conventional used solutions.
Washing of surfaces and laundry is one of the promising areas were ultrafine bubbles can make a difference in the application. Reducing the amount of detergent, has a positive effect by reducing pollution, washing laundry without detergent, would greatly benefit the environment. Ultrafine bubbles can lower the surface tension of water, the large amounts of oxygen molecules in bubbles charge the water negative.
Carnation flower growers in Japan use nano bubble irrigation technology against fusarium, withering and dying plants, to improve stem quality, flower size, shoot count, volume of stems and growth speed. In the growing season 2017 / 2018, acniti conducted trials, the test area had irrigation water with billions of ultrafine bubbles of an average size of 110 nm and high DO water with 30 mg/l.
Lake Ida Anne has a growing problem with algae in spring and summer. A large number of nutrients are available in the lake, and this promotes algae growth. The city of Langford tested the ultrafine bubble mixer as Oxygenation System to combat the algae, with great success.
The electrical properties of gas bubbles are important in determining the interaction of nano-bubbles if and when they merge together and how they interact with other materials such as solid particles or oil droplets. Knowledge about this helps application development in for example, protein skimmers, froth flotation, food processing, washing surfaces and purification.
The submersible UFB mixer is a, complete unit with the low-pressure mixing valve technique that effectively and efficiently saturates liquids with gases over 5 times the levels of conventional technologies. The unit moves 113 liters of water per minute and dissolves 4 liters of oxygen per minute creating a high DO content and ultrafine bubbles in the water.